Police have acknowledged using sponge rounds, bean bag rounds, stinger rounds, teargas grenades, pepper spray, Mace, Tasers and a sound weapon.
Linda Black Elk, a member of the Catawba Nation who works with the Standing Rock Medic & Healer Council said:
“We’re going to hope for the absolute best. If they do attempt to remove people forcibly, we are certainly preparing for mass casualties.” She believes racism is at the heart of the high handed tactics employed by law enforcement officials. “The thing is, racism is nothing new here. It has always been there; it’s just bubbling under the surface” she said.The ongoing conflict has seen one woman’s arm nearly blown off, according to her father, and a complaint alleges that another woman was shot in the eye, resulting in the detachment of her retina and possible permanent blindness.
The Mandan, North Dakota, police chief, Jason Ziegler, has asserted that law enforcement agencies “can use whatever force necessary to maintain peace”.