1882: Assassination attempt made on the life of Queen Victoria
1958: Antartic crossed for the first time by Dr Vivian Fuchs
1970: Rhodesia gains independence
1986: The British Queen signs a proclamation giving Australia legal independence
1316: King Robert II of Scotland.
1459: Pope Adrian VI, the only Dutch pope and the last non-Italian until John Paul II in 1978.
1545: Thomas Bodley, English founder of the Bodleian library.
1760: Camille Desmoulins, French journalist.
1810: Pope Leo XIII
1876: Pope Pius XII.1900: Kurt Weil, German composer.
1931: Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet president.
986 Lothair, Carolingian King.
1127: Charles the Good, Count of Flanders.
1619: Anne of Denmark, Queen Consort of King James I of England.
1755: Louis duc de St.-Simon, French memoirist.
1791: John Wesley, British co-founder of the Methodists.
1797: Horace Walpole, English gothic author.
1840: Wilhelm Olbers, German astronomer.
1855: Tsar Nicholas I of Russia.1930: D H Lawrence, British author.